I just read the book Healthy Heart by Michael Mogadam MD (Copyright 2009). He says that the Framingham Study is fine but it is looked at wrong. The risk of cardiovascular event can be low, moderate, high and very high. Recent data shows that two thirds of those at risk for cardiovascular events are considered low risk according to Framingham risk scores.
So this MD says that the problem is that they look at this study with 6 traditional risk factors. But he has found 20 different risk factors that matter. Note that there is (according to this book) good HDL-2 cholesterol and bad HDL-3 cholesterol. Please note that the HDL-1 is just like the vitamin D1. They do not exist. There are 2 types of LDL and the small ones are bad. Triglycerides contain no cholesterol, but cholesterol contains triglycerides.
Number one risk factor is diabetes. There is also abdominal obesity, sedentary lifestyle, Western diet, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, age (45+ for men, women 55+), smoking, chronic kidney disease, chronic inflammation, blood pressure, elevated lipoprotein, family history, homocysteine, negative affect HAD (hostility, anger and depression), too many red blood cells, platelets and high fibrogen levels, sleep apnea or chronic lung disease and low birth weight (less than 5 pounds).
Please note that high levels of homocysteine are strongly linked to not getting enough of certain B vitamins. Homocysteine is an amino acid in the blood. Too much of it is definitely related to a higher risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease (fatty deposits in peripheral arteries). So make sure that you get enough folic acid (high in green leafy vegetables and beans), vitamin B-6 and vitamin B-12.
Good sources of vitamin B-6 are bananas, spinach, cauliflower, celery, broccoli, kale, collard greens, brussels sprouts, chard, bell peppers, cabbage, watermelon, tomatoes, carrots, eggplant, potatoes, onions, grapes, strawberry, avocado and pineapple. Many of these are in salads.
Vitamin B-12 is a complicated issue. Many people, including many who eat a lot of meat, do not get enough of it. It is linked to stress and other thngs. So people should take a supplement of it. It is cheap since you need very tiny amounts of it. They make it by growing it on bacteria.